by: Peter J. Gallagher (@pjsgallagher) (LinkedIn)
Facebook is useful for a lot of things — humble bragging about your children, posting professionally taken candid photographs of your smiling family, announcing your engagement/marriage/pregnancy/baby's gender to several hundred of your closest friends, etc. In K.A. v. J.L., a New Jersey court added another item to this list. After observing that courts in other jurisdictions were almost evenly split on the issue, the court allowed plaintiffs in that case to serve defendant via Facebook. (When it researched the issue, I assume the court reviewed one of my prior posts about two New York courts that also allowed service via Facebook.)
K.A. involved very unusual facts. Plaintiffs sued defendant to "enjoin defendant from holding himself out as the father of their [adopted] son." Defendant, who was not the son's biological father of record, sent the son a friend request over Facebook. The son declined. Defendant then reached out to the son over Instagram, claiming that he was the son's biological father. Defendant allegedly informed the son that he knew where the son was born, and disclosed both the identity of the son's birth mother and that the son had "biological siblings at large." (Plaintiffs allege that defendant also sent a Facebook friend request to the son's sister, who, like the son, declined the invite.) Defendant also "incorporated a picture of [the son] into an image comprised of three separate photographs, each featuring a different person," and purportedly claimed that the collage was a picture of his children. Defendant shared this picture with the public on his Facebook account. Plaintiffs believe defendant obtained the image of the son from the son's Facebook account.
Plaintiffs claimed that defendant was a "complete stranger to them," and that they had no contact with him prior to the events that led to the litigation. Plaintiffs' counsel attempted to serve cease and desist letters on defendant at his last known address via certified and regular mail. The certified letters were returned as unclaimed, but the letters sent by regular mail were never returned. Plaintiffs then sued, seeking an injunction preventing defendant from contacting their son or claiming to be his father. They sought permission from the court to serve the complaint on defendant via Facebook.
Continue reading “Court Approves Service Of Complaint Via Facebook, No Word On How Many “Likes” It Received”
by: Peter J. Gallagher (@pjsgallagher) (LinkedIn)
In 2006 and 2007, the Administrative Office of the Courts issued directives addressing jury voir dires. The directives require, among other things, that trial judges ask jurors at least three open-ended questions that are designed to elicit a narrative response to which "appropriate follow up questions [can] be asked." These questions must be "posed verbally to each juror to elicit a verbal response." The purpose of this requirement is to "ensure that jurors verbalize their answers so the court, attorneys and litigants can better assess the jurors' attitudes and ascertain any bias or prejudice, not evident from a yes or no response, that might interfere with the ability of that juror to be impartial." The importance of the Administrative Office's directives was highlighted in two recent decision from the Appellate Division, both of which overturned verdicts rendered by jurors who were not asked at least three open-ended questions during voir dire.
In Heredia v. Piccininni, plaintiff sued after being injured in an automobile accident. Before trial, defendant stipulated liability, thus the only issue for the jury was damages. In advance of jury selection, Plaintiff submitted the following open-ended questions to be asked during voir dire:
- What are your feelings regarding the proposition that accidents resulting in serious damage to a vehicle may result in no bodily injuries and accidents resulting in little damage to a vehicle may result in serious bodily injuries?
- Describe by way of an example an experience in your life that illustrates your ability to be fair and open-minded in this case.
- Who are the two people that you least admire and why?
- What would you do about the homeless situation?
- What would you do about those without medical insurance?
The court did not include any of plaintiff's proposed questions in the list of questions used during voir dire. Instead, the trial judge asked each juror "multiple biographical questions required by the [Administrative Office]," including how they received their news, what their favorite television shows were, what bumper stickers they had on their cars, and how they spent their time. None of these were open-ended questions. Plaintiff's counsel used two of her six peremptory challenges during jury selection and, at the end of the process, advised the court that the jury was satisfactory.
After trial, the jury returned a verdict of no cause on plaintiff's non-economic losses (e.g., pain and suffering damages) but awarded plaintiff her economic damages, representing the full value of her outstanding medical bills. Plaintiff appealed, arguing, among other things, that the trial judge failed to ask any open-ended questions during voir dire.
Continue reading “Not An Open-Ended Issue: Judge’s Failure To Ask Open-Ended Questions During Voir Dire Is Reversible Error.”
There have been two high-profile prison escapes in recent weeks — one in Mexico and one in upstate New York. In United States v. Small, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit dealt with a third escape that was much lower-profile but still interesting. It presented the question of whether an individual could be guilty of the federal crime of escape even if he was never in the physical custody of the federal government or its agents.
In Small, defendant was serving a state prison term when he was convicted of federal tax fraud and sentenced to 135 months in a federal prison. The federal sentence was set to begin after the state sentence expired. To that end, the U.S. Marshal delivered to the state prison a detainer, which "governed Small's transfer to federal authorities upon completion of his state sentence." A few years later, however, the state prison "received documents in the mail, ostensibly from the [federal court], but which in reality were forgeries sent at Small's direction," which purported to vacate Small's conviction and sentence. The forgeries must have been good because the state prison believed them to be genuine and released Small after his state prison sentence ended.
A few months after he was released from state prison, a federal agent learned of Small's release. Federal agents quickly located and arrested Small, charging him with several crimes including escape. Small moved to dismiss that charge on the ground that he was never in federal custody, a requisite element of the federal crime of escape. He then entered an "open plea of guilty" and was sentenced to 60 months in prison on each count of the indictment (to be served concurrently with each other but consecutively to his tax fraud sentence).
Continue reading “Not Quite El Chapo’s Escaping Through A Tunnel Under His Shower, But Still An Escape From “Custody””
by: Peter J. Gallagher (@pjsgallagher)
On Monday, the Daily News reported on a "landmark" ruling by a Manhattan judge allowing a woman to serve her "elusive husband" with divorce papers via Facebook. The judge order that the divorce papers must be sent to the husband over Facebook "once a week for three consecutive weeks or until acknowledged." According to the article, the husband kept in touch with his wife by phone and through Facebook, but that he had no fixed address and refused to make himself available to be served. After all other conventional methods of service failed — he vacated his last known address in 2011, he had no job, the post office had no forwarding address for him, there was no billing address linked to his prepaid cell phone, and the DMV had no record of him — the judge allowed service through Facebook.
While interesting, this is not actually a landmark decision. Less than one year ago, a Staten Island judge permitted service via Facebook in a similar case. (Obviously, since this took place in my ancestral home, it went unnoticed — the latest proof that Staten Island truly is the "forgotten borough.") In that case, also involving a domestic dispute, a man was allowed to serve his ex-wife with "legal notice that he [did not] want to pay any more child support" via Facebook after more conventional methods of service failed. The man's ex-wife had moved from her last known address and did not provide any forwarding information to the post office. However, she maintained "an active social media account with Facebook," therefore the judge allowed her to be served through that Facebook account.
In addition, several federal courts have also addressed this issue. For example, in one case, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York held that service via Facebook might not, on its own, comport with due process, but it was acceptable as a supplemental method in conjunction with other, more conventional, methods of service. In a different case, a different judge in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York refused to authorize service via Facebook where the plaintiff could not demonstrate that the Facebook profile that the plaintiff proposed to use for service was in fact maintained by the defendant or that the email address listed on the Facebook profile was accessed by the defendant. Although these cases are among the few to have considered the issue, they appear to describe the approach courts are likely to take when faced with a request to permit service via Facebook — if all other methods are exhausted, or service via Facebook is one of several methods to be employed, and if there is some showing that the individual to be served actually maintains and accesses the Facebook account, then service via Facebook would probably be acceptable.
In an ongoing series, Eric Probst has been posting contract drafting tips for home improvement companies in the pool industry. In the latest installment, Tip #6 – Identify Customer's Responsibilities, Eric emphasizes the importance of identifying client responsibilities in the construction process, and memoralizing them in the agreement. Previous tips include:
Tip #1 – “Three Cs” – Clear, Concise, and Conspicuous
Tip #2 – Cancellation Provisions
Tip #3 – Payment Provisions
Tip #4 – Describe the Work You Will Perform
Anyone involved in the industry would be wise to heed Eric's advice, so be sure to check back often for more tips.